Pradel, Pierre (1937). Our Auction House is located in the most emblematic city of "La Royauté": Versailles. In accordance with provisions of the 1804 Constitution, Versailles was designated as an imperial palace for the department of the Seine-et-Oise. Located there are the apartments of the dauphin, the dauphine, and the daughters of Louis XV.  The case for removing the Escalier was strengthened by the poor condition of the cast bronze support for the massive skylight over the staircase, which under Louis XIV had been an experimental wonder which allowed for an unprecedented span of the glass. The Palace of Versailles has been listed as a World Heritage Site for 30 years and is one of the greatest achievements in French 17th century art.  Following this decree, the château became a repository for art work seized from churches and princely homes. ! She and her billionaire timeshare mogul husband David Siegel, 83, began construction on the mansion in 2004. The upper story of the château neuf was reserved for private rooms for the king to the north and rooms for the king's children above the queen's apartment to the south.. On 8 October 1896, Czar Nicolas II and his wife Alexandra, arrived at Versailles. Fromageot, Paul-Henri (1903). To the east of the palace is the Place d’Armes, a wide plaza that in the 21st century served mainly as a parking lot to accommodate the thousands of tourists who visited Versailles each day. The ground floor of the central building was reserved for key members of the royal family. Louis XIV ceased to inhabit the rooms of his Grand Apartment, the salons of which were instead used for purposes of state and ceremony. The Treaty of Versailles was the primary treaty produced by the Paris Peace Conference at the end of World War I.It was signed on June 28, 1919, by the Allied and associated powers and by Germany in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles and went into effect on January 10, 1920. The court had grown during the 1670s as Louis XIV re-shaped his relationship with the high aristocracy.  The proposal was debated but eventually it was tabled. Avoir accompli cette œuvre, c'est avoir été grand comme roi et impartial comme philosophe ; c'est avoir fait un monument national d'un monument monarchique ; c'est avoir mis une idée immense dans un immense édifice ; c'est avoir installé le présent dans le passé, 1789 vis-à-vis de 1688, l'empereur chez le roi, Napoléon chez Louis XIV ; en un mot, c'est avoir donné à ce livre magnifique qu'on appelle l'histoire de France cette magnifique reliure qu'on appelle Versailles.”. With George Blagden, Alexander Vlahos, Tygh Runyan, Stuart Bowman. The Grand Apartments were furnished sumptuously with objects from the Gobelins Manufactory, showcasing the very best in French decorative arts and craftmanship.  By the early 1920s, years of accumulating neglect had taken a serious toll on the physical condition of the palace and gardens. !  At this time, the ground floor of the northern wing was converted into a gallery of French history from the 17th century to the 19th century. In 1667, 28-year-old all-powerful king of France, Louis XIV, decides to build the greatest palace in the world - Versailles. For a time between late 1668 and early 1669, when the ground floor of the enveloppe was being constructed, Louis XIV intended to completely demolish his father's palace and replace it with a monumental forecourt. In the centre of the Place d’Armes, facing the Avenue de Paris, is a bronze equestrian statue of Louis XIV. While a number of the paintings were of questionable quality, a few were masterpieces, such as the Battle of Taillebourg by Eugène Delacroix. Despite its designation as a museum, Versailles served as an annex to the Hôtel des Invalides pursuant to the decree of 7 frimaire an VIII (28 November 1799), which commandeered part of the palace and which had wounded soldiers being housed in the petit appartement du roi. "1837: L'inauguration par Louis-Philippe du musée dédié 'À Toutes les gloires de la France". By 2000 Westgate included five resorts and was turning over $300 million in annual sales. The Bull’s-Eye Salon, named for its distinctive oval window, was the anteroom where courtiers waited until the king rose. CONTACT ONE OF OUR SALES OFFICES: Boca Bridges (561) 509-5400 - OR - … "Versailles sous le premier Empire". ... Join our mailing list and we'll keep you updated with the latest sales and current home fashion trends. , Louis XIII's successor, Louis XIV, had a great interest in Versailles. Nov 6, 2012 - This bijou French palace, commissioned by Louis XV and brought to life by Marie Antoinette, is a consummate exercise in balance and restraint  With a few modifications, this structure would become the core of the new palace. Dating back to the Second Empire, this property offers 400 m² of living area comprising an entry hall, a vast reception room with parquet flooring and access A transition room. Hoog 1996, p. 372; Verlet 1985, pp. Members of high society and nobility, such as the Duke of Aumale and the Empress Eugenie flocked to see new developments. 329–330. To accommodate the displays, some of the boiseries were removed and either put into storage or sold. Fayolle, who had been nominated to the Commission des arts, became guardian of the collection and was later, in June 1794, nominated by the Convention to be the first directeur du Conservatoire du Muséum national de Versailles. Each room is dedicated to one of the then known celestial bodies and is personified by the appropriate Greco-Roman deity. The northern wing (first floor facing the city of Versailles) The northern wing (attica) The southern wing (attica) The southern wing (ground floor Salles Empire) ! As the center of the French court, Versailles was one of the grandest theaters of European absolutism. This cost roughly 1.1 million livres between 1684 and 1685, with construction completed in 1686. "La chambre de la Reine".  The grands appartements were used as galleries in which the morceaux de réception submitted by artists seeking admission to the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture during the 17th and 18th centuries, the series The Life of Saint Bruno by Eustache Le Sueur and the Life of Marie de Médicis by Peter Paul Rubens were placed on display. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The sale of furniture transpired at auctions held between 23 August 1793 and 30 nivôse an III (19 January 1795). Three days later the so-called “women’s march” on Versailles would force Louis XVI to relocate to Paris and spell the end of the palace as a royal residence. Both the grand appartement du roi and the grand appartement de la reine formed a suite of seven enfilade rooms. Some art historians criticized the Royal Gate as a modern interpretation of the original rather than a true restoration, but it served an undeniably valuable role in directing visitor traffic.  The King's former bedchamber became a throne room known as the Salon d'Apollon, while the neighboring Salon de Mercure contained a state bed partitioned from the public area by a solid silver balustrade.  The Public Establishment of the Palace, Museum and National Estate of Versailles was created in 1995. Charles Le Brun oversaw the interior decoration. Constans, 1985; 1987; Mauguin, 1937; Verlet,1985. European leaders signed the treaty in the Palace of Versailles’ Hall of Mirrors—the very place where the German Empire had been created, and … Beyond the Royal Court is the Marble Court, so named for the distinctive black and white marble tiles that adorn the terrace floor. All the power of France emanated from this centre: there were government offices here, as well as the homes of thousands of courtiers, their retinues, and all the attendant functionaries of court. The Galerie des Batailles was modeled on the Grande Galerie of the Louvre Palace and was intended to glorify French military history from the Battle of Tolbiac (traditionally dated 495) to the Battle of Wagram (5–6 July 1809). A Versailles, il fit ainsi rassembler au rez-de-chaussée de l’aile sud du palais, sous la galerie des Batailles, la plupart des grands tableaux commandés par Napoléon. Between the new Hall of Mirrors to the west and the Staircase of the Ambassadors to the east, the Grand Apartment created one huge route for entertainment and palace fêtes. , Soon after the crushing defeat of the War of the League of Augsburg (1688–1697) and owing possibly to the pious influence of Madame de Maintenon, Louis XIV undertook his last building campaign at Versailles. Nolhac, 1899, 1901; Marie, 1968; Verlet, 1985. Located in Versailles Notre Dame, this 18th century town mansion is a short walk from the palace and just 200 metres from the Place du Marché. Its walls are preserved today as the exterior facade overlooking the Marble Court.  During the early years of the French Revolution, preservation of the palace was largely in the hands of the citizens of Versailles. Pleased with the location, Louis ordered the construction of a hunting lodge in 1624. " Elena Geuna and Laurent Le Bon, curators of the exhibition present it as follow: "It is the city aspect that underlies this entire venture. It leads to the bedroom in which Louis XIV died and that Louis XV occupied from 1722 to 1738. Echo, dialectic, opposition, counterpoint... Not for us to judge! At the same time, Nolhac began to restore the palace to its appearance before the Revolution.  In 1575, Albert de Gondi, a naturalized Florentine who gained prominence at the court of Henry II, purchased the seigneury of Versailles. Empire Versailles. Hôtel des Menus-Plaisirs du Roi in Versailles. The Orangerie required excavating the hillside descending south from the palace, which allowed the construction of a 500 foot long arcaded gallery with shorter wings extending at right angles, buttressed against the hill above.  The Royal Stables were given pride of place opposite the Cour d'Armes in front of the main palace, on either side of the Avenue de Paris, the main approach to Versailles from Paris. Dating back to the Second Empire, this... € 3,000,000  The revolution wrought by Nolhac produced a new awareness of the castle. Eight years later, Louis obtained the seigneury of Versailles from the Gondi family and began to make enlargements to the château. Originally located at the apex of the Court of Honour, the statue was relocated to the Place d’Armes in 2009 after an extensive restoration. At Versailles, he gathered most of the large paintings commissioned by Napoleon in the ground floor of the Palace’s South Wing, under the Gallery of Great Battles. The emperor chose to reside at the Grand Trianon. It has been suggested that this parallel configuration was intentional as Louis XIV had intended to establish Marie-Thérèse d’Autriche as queen of Spain, and thus thereby establish a dual monarchy. On 6 October 1789, the royal family had to leave Versailles and move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris, as a result of the Women's March on Versailles. If you have any questions about your purchase or any other product for sale, our customer service representatives are available to help. The château continued to serve, however, as an annex of the Hôtel des Invalides Nevertheless, on 3 January 1805, Pope Pius VII, who came to France to officiate at Napoléon's coronation, visited the palace and blessed the throng of people gathered on the parterre d'eau from the balcony of the Hall of Mirrors. Félibien, 1703; Marie, 1972; Verlet, 1985. 34 x 43 in. Meyer, Daniel (1985). Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? (86.4 x 109.2 cm). The Royal Gate, an elaborate gold leaf gate, separates the Court of Honour from the Royal Court at the location where the Louis XIV statue once stood. In June 1669 Louis XIV decided to keep his father's hunting lodge, so the architectural plans for the enveloppe had to be reconfigured and the scale of the new rooms reduced.. To the west is the Gate of Honour, a gilded iron gate and stone balustrade that marks the main entrance to the palace complex. After the disgrace of Nicolas Fouquet in 1661 – Louis claimed the finance minister would not have been able to build his grand château at Vaux-le-Vicomte without having embezzled from the crown – Louis, after the confiscation of Fouquet's estate, employed the talents of Le Vau, Le Nôtre, and Le Brun, who all had worked on Vaux-le-Vicomte, for his building campaigns at Versailles and elsewhere. Browse more artworks Robert Polidori from Gail Severn Gallery. Mirrors were assigned by the finance ministry for payment of debts of the Republic and draperies, upholstery, and fringes were confiscated and sent to the mint to recoup the gold and silver used in their manufacture. To create a suitably sumptuous approach, the rooms behind the south façade overlooking the Cour de Marbre were modified to create three large antechambers (the vestibule, Salle des gardes du roi, and the Première Antichambre) preceding the King's bedchamber, followed by the Grand Salon at the center of the west façade. During this campaign, the château began to assume some of the appearance that it has today. THANKS :) LOAD MORE LOGS.  The Queen continued to inhabit her own Grand Apartment, albeit with some modifications. Landscape artist André Le Nôtre created symmetrical French gardens that included ornate fountains with “magically” still water, expressing the power of humanity—and, specifically, the king—over nature. Bluche, 1986, 1991; Bendix, 1978; Solnon, 1987. The vignette also shows a garden on the western side of the château with a fountain on the central axis and rectangular planted parterres to either side. The grand appartement du roi occupied the northern part of the château neuf and grand appartement de la reine occupied the southern part. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. , After the death of the Louis XIV in 1715, the five-year-old king Louis XV, the court, and the Régence government of Philippe d’Orléans returned to Paris. 1986 Fujicolor Crystal Archive print, printed later. , By moving his court and government to Versailles, Louis XIV hoped to extract more control of the government from the nobility and to distance himself from the population of Paris. The private apartments of the queen, Marie-Antoinette, and the living quarters of the captain of the guard are also found on the ground floor.  This left scant resources available to devote towards the long-nurtured dream of rebuilding the Paris-facing wings of the Enveloppe enclosing the Marble and Royal Courts, known as the "Grand Project". Under the French Second Empire a different theatre with the name Théâtre des Menus-Plaisirs was constructed at 14 Boulevard de Strasbourg in Paris. Source: Historical images of the Palace of Versailles, Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, Public Establishment of the Palace, Museum and National Estate of Versailles, "Versailles "Grand Commun": strengthening a historical monument", "American Patronage at the Chateau de Versailles", The Louis XIV Sculpture Returns to Versailles, Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, Prehistoric sites and decorated caves of the Vézère valley, Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_the_Palace_of_Versailles&oldid=988978742, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Batiffol, Louis (1913). Perhaps the most-famous room in the palace is the Hall of Mirrors (1678–89). ", The bronze equestrian statue of Louis XIV (Statue équestre de Louis XIV), a sculpture created by both Pierre Cartellier (1757-1831) and Louis Petitot (1794-1862) and completed in 1836, was restored in 2009.  Upon his arrival, he planned to re-introduce historical galleries, organized scientifically, in contrast to the approach of Louis-Philippe, who had created the first galleries in a manner aimed at glorifying the history of France.  The money supported the replacement of the roof of the palace, repairs to the masonry and to the exterior woodwork, the restoration of the Orangerie, the Théâtre de la Reine, and the Minister's Wings. Under ... Histoire des salles de l'Opéra de Paris, p. 83. Palace of Versailles, former French royal residence and centre of government, now a national landmark. 32, pp. The "Grand" Stable housed the King's hunting horses and hounds, while the "Petit" Stable contained the King's carriages and other transport. Additionally, at this time, policy was established in which the French government would aggressively seek to acquire as much of original furniture and artwork that had been dispersed at the time of the Revolution of 1789 as possible.. This was done to fulfill Louis XIV's desire to establish a new centre for the royal court. The Palace of Versailles ( / v ɛər ˈ s aɪ / vair-sy or / v ər ˈ s aɪ /; French: [vɛʁˈsaj]), or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. GET IN TOUCH. In 1924, the American oil millionaire John D. Rockefeller was galvanized by a series of articles decrying the miserable state of repair at Versailles in the French magazine L'Illustration; Rockefeller wrote personally to the President of France, Raymond Poincaré, to offer financial support in restoring the palace. The new structure provided new lodgings for the king and members of his family. Classic Empire's Complete Worldwide Auction Results. 08/04/2020 9:25 am.  Between 1925 and 1928, the Rockefeller Foundation donated $2,166,000 towards the restoration of Versailles (roughly $30 million in 2014 USD). 10, 284; Lemoine 1976. Mauguin, 1940–1942; Pradel, 1937; Verlet, 1985. Pierre de Nolhac arrived at the Palace of Versailles in 1887 and was appointed curator of the museum 18 November 1892.  The meticulous and strict court etiquette that Louis established, which overwhelmed his heirs with its petty boredom, was epitomised in the elaborate ceremonies and exacting procedures that accompanied his rising in the morning, known as the Lever, divided into a petit lever for the most important and a grand lever for the whole court. Given the perilous financial state of the postwar French Third Republic, outside patronage became more essential than ever. With the abandonment of the palace, there remained no less than 104 libraries which contained in excess of 200,000 printed volumes and manuscripts.  A deputation from Versailles met with the king on 12 October after which Louis XVI, touched by the sentiments of the residents of Versailles, rescinded the order. As a contemporary of Napoleon I, King Louis-Philippe was eager to obtain the support of former members of the Empire and the favour of Bonapartist opinion. In 1680 the Salon of Mars which had served as the Queen's guard-room was converted into a dining room for the Grand Couvert, a daily ritual in which the King and Queen ate their midday meal together in view of the court. SO IF YOU HAVE PHOTOS OF THESE ROOMS, PLEASE LET ME KNOW, SO I CAN FINALLY FINISH THE PALACE!!! 246–258; Mauguin, 1937; Verlet, 1985, pp. The ceiling was painted by Antoine Coypel, 1708–09. Contemporain de Napoléon 1er, le roi Louis-Philippe eut à cœur de rallier à son régime les anciens de l’Empire et l’opinion bonapartiste.  The next year, André Dumont the people's representative, became administrator for the department of the Seine-et-Oise. The ground floor of the northern part of the château neuf was occupied by the appartement des bains, which included a sunken octagonal tub with hot and cold running water. During the Second Empire, the museum remained essentially intact. "Un achat manqué par le musée de Versailles en 1852". When the château was built, Versailles was a country village; today, however, it is a suburb of Paris, some 20 kilometres southwest of the French capital. Like Napoléon before him, Louis-Philippe chose to live at the Grand Trianon; however, unlike Napoléon, Louis-Philippe did have a grand design for Versailles. If there's anything that should be within everyone's reach, it is a pleasant and practical bathroom. They were demolished in the 19th century in order to restore the appearance of the façade as it existed under Louis XIV.. During this period, the village of Versailles centred on a small castle and church, and the area was governed by a local lord. At the far north end of the wing is the Opéra Royal, built under Louis XV by Ange-Jacques Gabriel. Shipped with USPS Priority Mail. Nolhac 1911; Marie 1976, 1984; Verlet, 1985. , For the new appartement du roi, Louis chose the set of eight rooms on the piano nobile behind the west façade of the Cour de Marbre which had once belonged to his father in the old chateau. Dozens of marble busts, depicting Roman deities and emperors, adorn the facades overlooking the court, and the central buildings of the palace complex rise around it. , Later, Balzac characterised the effort in less laudatory terms as the “hospital of the glories of France”. 83 ads of luxury homes for sale in Versailles: on LuxuryEstate you will find thousands of ads in the department of Yvelines selected by the best real estate agencies in the luxury sector. Upon assuming his administrative duties, Dumont was struck with the deplorable state into which the palace and gardens had sunk. To safeguard the palace, the Assemblée nationale constituante ordered the palace of Versailles to be sealed. Beyond that lies the broad expanse of the Court of Honour, bounded on the north and south by the Ministers’ Wings, outbuildings constructed in the 1680s to house the king’s secretaries of state. This development choice is part of defense of French culture and heritage that has always animated us. In 1780 Louis XVI completed the Gabriel Wing reconstruction begun by his grandfather, and he had plans to extend the rebuilding. In the early seventeenth century, Gondi invited Louis XIII on several hunting trips in the forests surrounding Versailles. The museum, which included the sculptures in the garden, became the finest museum of classic French art that had existed. Louis XVI was known to walk on the roof and enjoy the commanding views, sometimes sitting with a telescope to peer at the courtiers milling around in the forecourts beneath him.  The palace, however, still serves political functions. , Significant among Louis XV's contributions to Versailles were the petit appartement du roi; the appartements des Mesdames, the appartement du dauphin, the appartement de la dauphine on the ground floor; and the two private apartments of Louis XV – petit appartement du roi au deuxième étage (later transformed into the appartement de Madame du Barry) and the petit appartement du roi au troisième étage – on the second and third floors of the palace. , The gardens remained largely unchanged from the time of Louis XIV; the completion of the Bassin de Neptune between 1738 and 1741 was the most important legacy Louis XV made to the gardens. Batiffol, 1913; Bluche, 1991; Marie, 1968; Nolhac, 1901; Verlet, 1985. , Among the items found at Versailles at this time a collection of natural curiosities that has been assembled by the sieur Fayolle during his voyages in America. Like other French court manners, étiquette was quickly imitated in other European courts.. The king's brother and sister-in-law, the duke and duchesse d’Orléans occupied apartments on the ground floor of the southern part of the château neuf. Article 9: Le siège du pouvoir exécutif et des deux chambres est à Versailles. , One of Dumont's first appointments was that of Huges Lagarde (10 messidor an III (28 June 1795), a wealthy soap merchant from Marseille with strong political connections, as bibliographer of the museum. Van der Kemp, Gérald (1976). The first building campaign (1664–1668) involved alterations in the château and gardens to accommodate the 600 guests invited to the party. "Le château de Versailles de Louis XIII et son architecte Philibert le Roy". , While Napoléon did not reside in the château, apartments were, however, arranged and decorated for the use of the empress Marie-Louise. Home Empire. The South Wing is 176 yards long (528 feet), and was built with three interior courtyards capable of housing servants and aristocrats in addition to the Princes of the Blood, who were given luxurious apartments behind the west façade overlooking the gardens. Shipping and handling. The gallery extends more than 230 feet (70 metres) and is characterized by 17 wide arcaded mirrors opposite 17 windows that overlook the gardens below.  Mansart's imposing Grand Commun was built on the site of the old village church of Versailles, St. Julien, east of the new South Wing of the Chateau, between 1682 and 1684. Lagarde was able to assemble a team of curators including sieur Fayolle for natural history and, Louis Jean-Jacques Durameau, the painter responsible for the ceiling painting in the Opéra, was appointed as curator for painting. 661–664. The Marble Court at the Palace of Versailles, France. As a result of Versailles serving as a repository for confiscated art works, collections were amassed that eventually became part of the proposed museum. Louis XIII's old hunting pavilion was transformed and extended by his son, Louis XIV, when he installed the Court and government there in 1682. Gilded statues and reliefs border its marble walls. Lemoine, Pierre (1976). , Under the aegis of Gérald Van der Kemp [fr], chief conservator of the museum from 1952 to 1980, the palace witnessed some of its most ambitious conservation and restoration projects: the Opéra (completed in 1957); the Grand Trianon (1965); the Chambre de la Reine (1975); the Chambre de Louis XIV and the Hall of Mirrors (1980). The chapel on the grounds of the Palace of Versailles, France, built on two levels, by Robert de Cotte, 1710. In recent years, many a cultural institution has attempted a confrontation between a heritage setting and contemporary works. Large, tall and sturdy movement of triangular shape, with three trains, for the time, the hourly strike on the lower tone bell and the quarter strike on the two higher tone bells. Nolhac also working to bring in foreign personalities. In 1701 there were further modifications in the appartement du roi, namely the construction of the Salon de l’Œil de Bœuf and the King's Bedchamber. Berger, 1985a; Thompson, 2006; Verlet, 1985. “Ce que le roi Louis-Philippe a fait à Versailles est bien. Whether you just want to buy a Empire Industries Versailles 33'' L x 20" W Farmhouse Kitchen Sink with Sink Grid and Strainer or shop for your entire home, Wayfair has a zillion things home. When Louis XV and the court returned to Versailles in 1722, the first project was the completion of the Salon d'Hercule, which had been begun during the last years of Louis XIV's reign but was never finished due to the king's death. These were later joined by Italy, Japan, the United States, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. In the north wing, the palace chapel rises above the rest of the grounds. Only a few changes to Le Nôtre's design were made: some bosquets were removed, others altered, including the Bains d'Apollon (north of the Parterre de Latone), which was redone after a design by Hubert Robert in anglo-chinois style (popular during the late 18th century), and the Labyrinthe (at the southern edge of the garden) was converted to the small Jardin de la Reine. Empire. In 1624 the king entrusted Jacques Lemercier with the construction of a château on the site. Far from being simply utilitarian, Hardouin-Mansart designed two Neoclassical buildings of equal size and grandeur, capable of housing thousands of horses and the nearly 1,500 men employed in the household department of the Royal Stables. The Palace of Versailles is a royal château in Versailles, in the Île-de-France region of France. The main floor – the piano nobile – of the château neuf was given over entirely to two apartments: one for the king, and one for the queen. To compound the shortage of money, Louis XVI channeled significant financial resources into other properties, including the purchase and renovation of the Chateau de Saint Cloud in 1784, and an ongoing rebuilding of the Château de Compiègne throughout the 1780s.  Ultimately, the advent of the debt crisis in the French government in 1787 and the beginning of the French Revolution spelled an end to any such plans. "Versailles", vol. "Versailles pendant la Révolution", Hoog, Simone (1996). Tourists in the Royal Court at the Palace of Versailles, France. That area underwent extensive remodeling in the post-Revolutionary period, and the ground floor is now dominated by the Hall of Congress, where the Chamber of Deputies met from 1876 to 1879. Bluche, 1990; Thompson, 2006; Verlet, 1985. The hall is flanked on opposite ends by the equally striking Salon of Peace and Salon of War. 540–545. The idea of establishing the court at Versailles was conceived to ensure that all of his advisors and provincial rulers would be kept close to him. No Northern Hemisphere sales activity to date. "La visite du Pape Pie VII à Versailles le 3 janvier 1805". But drained budget, affairs and political intrigues complicate things. This was preceded by two service wings, creating a forecourt with a grilled entrance marked by two round towers.